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[雅思阅读集训营] 模拟剑 10 Test 1 Passage 3 集训

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明媚太阳花 发表于 2015-4-21 17:57:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 cassie 于 2015-8-11 11:37 编辑

剑 10 Test 1 Passage 3 集训

READING PASSAGE 3
you shouldspend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40,which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Reading Passage 3 has four sections (A-D). Choose the mostsuitable heading for each section from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers (Ⅰ-Ⅶ) in boxes 27-30 on your Answer Sheet There aremore headings than sections, so you will not use all of them.

List ofHeadings
1. Top Ocean Predators
2.  Toxic Exposure
3. Declining FishPopulations  
4. Pleasure Boating in the San JuanIslands
5. UnderwaterNoise
6.  Smog in Large Cities
7. Impact of Boat Traffic
27     Section A
28      Section B
29      Section C
30       Section D
Issues  Affecting the SouthernResident Orcas
A
Orcas,also known as biller whales, are opportunistic feeders, which means they will take a variety of different preyspecies. J, K, and L pods (specific groups of orcas found in the region) arealmost exclusively fish eaters. Some studies show that up to 90 percent oftheir diet is salmon, with Chinook? salmon being far and away their favorite.During the last 50 years, hundreds of wild runs of salmon have become extinctdue to habitat loss and overfishing of wild stocks. Many of the extinct salmonstocks are the winter runs of chinook and coho. Although the surviving stockshave probably been sufficient to sustain the resident pods, many of the runsthat have been lost were undoubtedly traditional resources favored by the residentorcas. This may be affecting the whales’ nutrition in the winter and mayrequire them to change their patterns of movement in order to search for food.
Other studies with tagged whales haveshown that they regularly dive up to 800 feet in this area.
Researcherstend to think that during these deep dives the whales may be feeding on bottomfish.Bottomfish species in this area would include halibut, rockfish, lingcod, andgreenling. Scientists estimate that today’s lingcod population in northernPuget Sound and the Strait of Georgia is only 2 percent of what it was in 1950.The average size of rockfish in the recreational catch has also declined byseveral inches since the 1970s, which is indicative of overfishing. In somelocations, certain rockfish species have disappeared entirely. So even ifbottomfish are not a major food resource for the whales, the present lownumbers of available fish increases the pressure on orcas and all marineanimals to find food. (For more information on bottomfish see the San JuanCounty Bottomfish Recovery Program.)   
B
Toxic substances accumulate in higherconcentrations as they move up the food chain. Because orcas #are the top predator in the ocean and are at the top of several different foodchains in the environment,they tend to be more affected by pollutants than other sea creatures.Examinations of stranded biller whales have shown some extremely high levels oflead, mercury, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons. Abandoned marine toxic wastedumps and present levels of industrial and human refuse pollution of the inlandwaters probably presents the most serious threat to the continued existence ofthis orca population. Unfortunately, the total remedy to this huge problemwould be broad societal changes on many fronts. But because of the fact thatorcas are so popular, they may be the best species to use as a focal point inbringing about the many changes that need to be made in order to protect themarine environment as a whole from further toxic poisoning.
C
Thewaters around the San Juan Islands are extremely busy due to internationalcommercial shipping, fishing, whale watching, and pleasure boating. On a busyweekend day in the summer, it is not uncommon to see numerous boats in thevicinity of the whales as they travel through the area The potential impactsfrom all this vessel traffic with regard to the whales and other marine animalsin the area could be tremendous.
Thesurfacing and breathing space of marine birds and mammals is a critical aspectof their habitat, which the animals must consciously deal with on amoment-to-moment basis throughout their lifetimes. With all the boatingactivity in the vicinity, there are three ways in which surface impacts aremost likely to affect marine animals: (a) collision, (b) collisionavoidance, and (c) exhaust emissions in breathing pockets.
Thefirst two impacts are very obvious and don’t just apply to vessels with motors.Kayabers even present a problem here because they’re so quiet. Marine animals,busy hunting and feeding under the surface of the water, may not be aware thatthere is a bayak above them and actually hit the bottom of it as they surfaceto breathe.
The third impact is one most peopledon’t even think of. When there are numerous boats in the area, especially idlingboats, there are a lot of exhaust fumes being spewed out on the surface of thewater. When the whale comes up to take a nice big breath of “fresh" air,it instead gets a nice big breath of exhaust fumes. It’s hard to say howgreatly this affects the animals, but think how breathing polluted air affectsus (i.e., smog in large cities like Los Angeles, breathing the foul air whilesitting in traffic jams, etc).
D
Similarto surface impacts, a primary source of acoustic pollution for this populationof orcas would also be derived from the cumulative underwater noise of vesseltraffic. For cetaceans, the underwater sound environment is perhaps the mostcritical component of their sensory and behavioral lives. Orcas communicatewith each other over short and long distances with a variety of dicks, chirps,squeaks, and whistles, along with using echolocation to locate prey and tonavigate. They may also rely on passive listening as a primary sensory source.The long-term impacts from noise pollution would not likely show up asnoticeable behavioral changes in habitat use, but rather as sensory damage orgradual reduction in population health. A new study at The Whale Museum calledthe SeaSound Remote Sensing Network has begun studying underwater acoustics andits relationship to orca communication.

For each question, choose the appropriate letter A-D andwrite it in boxes 31 and 32 on your Answer Sheet
31         Killerwhales (orcas) in the J, K, and L pods prefer to eat
A halibut.
Ba type of salmon.
Ca variety of animals.
Dfish living at the bottom of the sea.
32         Somegroups of salmon have become extinct because
A they have lost places to live.
Bwhales have eaten them.
Cthey don't get good nutrition.
Dthe winters in the area are too cold.
Questions 33-40 Complete the chart below.
Choose NOMORE THAN THREE WORDS tor each answer. Write your answers in boxes 33-40 on your Answer Sheet
Cauitt
EHect
Scientists  believe some whales feed (33) •
These  whales dive very deep.
Scientists  believe that the area is being over fished.
Rockfish  caught todav is (34) than rocbfish caught in the past.
Orcas  are at the top of the ocean food chain.
(35)  affects orcas more than it does other sea animals.
Orcas  are a (36) species.
We  can use orcas to make society aware of the problem of marine pollution.
People  enjoy boating, fishing, and whale watching in the San Juan Islands.
On  weekends there are (37) , near the whales.
Kavabs  are (38) •
Marine  animals hit them when they come up for air.
A  lot of boats beep their motors running.
Whales  breathe (39) .
Boats  are noisy.
  
Whales  have difficulty (40) .
  

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songlina 发表于 2015-4-22 08:27:01 | 显示全部楼层
剑 10 Teat 1 Passage 3 集训
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雨点 发表于 2015-4-25 11:25:48 | 显示全部楼层
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