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[GMAT阅读题讨论] PREP2012阅读第12篇第4题

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icetong123 发表于 2015-1-9 15:43:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Quantum theory, although of tremendous scientific value, has nevertheless prompted debate
among physicists. The debate arose because quantum theory addresses the peculiar
properties of minute objects such as photons and electrons. While one type of experiment
shows that these objects behave like particles, with well-defined trajectories through space,
another demonstrates that, on the contrary, they behave waves, their peaks and troughs
producing characteristic “interference" effects. However, scientists have failed to devise an
experiment to demonstrate both behaviors simultaneously.
In the 1920s, two alternate interpretations of quantum theory attempted to resolve this
apparently contradictory wave-particle duality. Physicist Niels Bohr argued that
wave-particle properties are not contradictory, but complementary. Contrary to our intuition
that an object continues to exist in some determined form even though we cannot perceive it,
he concluded that the physical of a quantum object is actually undetermined before the
object is observed via experiment.
Physicist Werner Heisenberg's “uncertainty principle," by contrast, postulated that we cannot
precisely determine two complementary properties, such as position and momentum, of a
quantum object simultaneously: if we measure an object's position with absolute certainty,
then there is an infinite uncertainty in its momentum, and vice versa. He concluded that
although we are limited in our ability to measure objects at the atomic and subatomic levels,
their position and momentum are nonetheless defined all along.


Which of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine B0hr's conclusion about the
physical reality of a quantum object?
A. The physical properties of particles and waves are inherently complementary.
B. Human intuition is not a factor in the interpretation of scientific data about quantum
objects.
C. Results of experiments on quantum objects are sometimes influenced by the expectations
of the experimenters.
D. The technology used in research on quantum objects has made tremendous advances
since the 19205.
E. Quantum objects possess distinct, continuously existing physical forms that do not
depend on the experiments used to measure them.

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