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[GMAT阅读集训营] 结论说明考点07prep-RC2阅读第15篇

icetong123 发表于 2014-11-8 10:32:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 icetong123 于 2015-1-5 20:34 编辑

After the Second World War,unionism in the Japanese auto industry was company-based, with separate unionsin each auto company.  Most companyunions played no independent role in bargaining shop-floor issues or pressingautoworkers' grievances.  In a 1981survey, for example, fewer than 1 percent of workers said they sought unionassistance for work-related problems, while 43 percent said they turned tomanagement instead.  There was little todistinguish the two in any case: most union officers were foremen ormiddle-level managers, and the union's role was primarily one of passivesupport for company goals.  Conflictoccasionally disrupted this cooperative relationship--one company union'sopposition to the productivity campaigns of the early 1980s has been cited assuch a case.  In 1986, however, a caucusled by the Foreman's Association forced the union's leadership out of officeand returned the union's policy to one of passive cooperation.  In the United States, the potential for suchcompany unionism grew after 1979, but it had difficulty taking hold in the autoindustry, where a single union represented workers from all companies,particularly since federal law prohibited foremen from joining or leadingindustrial unions.
The Japanese model was ofteninvoked as one in which authority decentralized to the shop floor empoweredproduction workers to make key decisions. What these claims failed to recognize was that the actual delegation ofauthority was to the foreman, not the workers. The foreman exercised discretion over job assignments, training,transfers, and promotions; worker initiative was limited to suggestions thatfine-tuned a management-controlled production process.  Rather than being proactive, Japanese workerswere forced to be reactive, the range of their responsibilities being far widerthan their span of control.  For example,the founder of one production system, Taichi Ohno, routinely gave departmentmanagers only 90 percent of the resources needed for production.  As soon as workers could meet productiongoals without working overtime, 10 percent of remaining resources would beremoved.  Because the "OH! NO!"system continually pushed the production process to the verge of breakdown inan effort to find the minimum resource requirement, critics described it as"management by stress."
Question #48.The passage is primarily concernedwith

(A) contrasting the role of unionsin the Japanese auto industry with the role of unions in the United States autoindustry after the Second World War
(B) describing unionism and thesituation of workers in the Japanese auto industry after the Second World War
(C) providing examples ofgrievances of Japanese auto workers against the auto industry after the SecondWorld War
(D) correcting a misconceptionabout the role of the foreman in the Japanese auto industry's union systemafter the Second World War
(E) reasserting the traditionalview of the company's role in Japanese auto workers' unions after the SecondWorld War
Question #49.According to the passage, a foremanin a United States auto company differed from a foreman in a Japanese autocompany in that the foreman in the United States would
(A) not have been a member of anauto workers' union
(B) have been unlikely to supportthe goals of company management
(C) have been able to controlproduction processes to a large extent
(D) have experienced greater stress
(E) have experienced less conflictwith workers
Question #50.  The author of the passage mentionsthe "OH! NO!" system primarily in order to

(A) indicate a way in which theUnited States industry has become more like the Japanese auto industry
(B) challenge a particularmisconception about worker empowerment in the Japanese auto industry
(C) illustrate the kinds ofproblem-solving techniques encouraged by company unions in Japan
(D) suggest an effective way ofminimizing production costs in auto manufacturing
(E) provide an example of theresponsibilities assumed by a foreman in the Japanese auto industry
Question #51.It can be inferred that the authorof the passage sees which of the following as the primary advantage tocompanies in implementing the "OH! NO!" system?

(A) It permitted the foreman totake initiative.
(B) It minimized the effortrequired to produce automobiles.
(C) It ensured that productioncosts would be as low as possible.
(D) It allowed the foreman tocontrol the production process.
(E) It required considerable workerempowerment to achieve managers' goals.


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ggyyWTF 发表于 2015-1-27 23:57:16 | 显示全部楼层
shut the fuck up
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