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[GMAT阅读题讨论] PREP2012阅读第15篇第1题

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icetong123 发表于 2015-1-9 16:03:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
According to a theory advanced by researcher Paul Martin, the wave of species extinctions
that occurred in North America about 11,000 years ago, at the end of the Pleistocene era, can
be directly attributed to the arrival of humans, i.e., the Paleoindians, who were ancestors of
modern Native Americans. However, anthropologist Shepard Krech points out that large
animal species vanished even in areas where there is no evidence to demonstrate that
Paleoindians hunted them. Nor were extinctions confined to large animals: small animals,
plants, and insects disappeared, presumably not all through human consumption. Krech also
contradicts Martin's exclusion of climatic change as an explanation by asserting that
widespread climatic change did indeed occur at the end of the Pleistocene. Still, Krech
attributes secondary if not primary responsibility for the extinctions to the Paleoindians,
arguing that humans have produced local extinctions elsewhere. But, according to historian
Richard White, even the attribution of secondary responsibility may not be supported by the
evidence. White observes that Martin's thesis depends on coinciding dates for the arrival of
humans and the decline of large animal species, and Krech, though aware that the dates are
controversial, does not challenge them; yet recent archaeological discoveries are providing
evidence that the date of human arrival was much earlier than 11,000 years ago.


Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Krech’s objections to Martin's theory?
A. Further studies showing that the climatic change that occurred at the end of the
Pleistocene era was even more severe and widespread than was previously behaved
B. New discoveries indicating that Paleoindians made use of the small animals, plants, and
insects that became extinct
C. Additional evidence indicating that widespread climatic change occurred not only at the
end of the Pleistocene era but also in previous and subsequent eras
D. Researchers’ discoveries that many more species became extinct in North America at
the end of the Pleistocene era than was previously believed
E. New discoveries establishing that both the arrival of humans in North America and the
wave of Pleistocene extinctions took place much earlier than 11,000 years ago

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